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The  Rutherford-Santilli  Neutron  as  a  Bohr-Rutherford  Atom

Robert B. Driscoll

Institute for Basic Research*


The neutron is modeled and analyzed classically as a Bohr atom with magnetic interaction included in the binding force.Electron and proton orbit their center of mass.  Proton spin is  sp↓,  electron spin is  ŝ↑;  the caret indicates a mutated value.Both are separated by distance  r  on the horizontal line through them (considered as point-particles).  Observed: neutron spin  sn↓  and magnetic dipole moment n↑  in the same frame of reference.  Consequently, the orbital angular momentum is  l↓.    μ̂̂l  − μ̂ =  n + p.


The parallel magnetic dipole moments  μ̂↓  and  p↓  mutually repel while the Coulomb charges  −e  and  +e  attract. 


Momentums are: electron,  Pe = m̂v + eAe;  proton,  Pp = mpvp − eAp.  Ae (or Ap)  is the total (intrinsic and extrinsic) vector potential in the horizontal plane tangent to the electron's (or proton's) orbit.


The central force on the electron (or proton) is  ωP (or ωPp),  also derivable by the usual electrodynamics;  ω  is the orbital radian frequency.  Results include:  v = vp = ω = 0;  l + ŝ = 0.


Numerical values assumed are:  r = 0.81 Fermi;  m̂ = mn − mp = 2.5 m;  m̂p = mp;  μ̂p = p;  ŝp = sp = sn = ħ/2.2  Calculated values are:  ŝ = 0.038ħ/2;  μ̂ = 3.6 x 10−26 SI;  ĝ̂e = 0.52.


R. M. Santilli has obtained a very small but finite value of  v/c0.2  The classical result perhaps would be similar if the quadrupole, etc. magnetic moments of the orbits of electron and proton were included in the calculations.1 


Intrinsic instability of the neutron as modeled and as observed requires stabilization by extrinsic vector potential  Ae = 0.013  SI  at the electron and Ap= 0.021  SI  at the proton, each parallel to  Pe;  these are present in atomic nuclei and, apparently, in some hadrons.


Extrinsic instability (e.g., spin flip caused by impacting particle) results in capture of the mutated electron by a positive constituent of the proton, forming the standard neutron as an isomer.  Recent research indicates reversibility of this capture. 1;3,4


Mutations  ŝ,  μ̂, ĝ̂e  are conceived as effects of intense magnetic inductive fields  B  on the intrinsic dynamics of the electron as a composite particle.1,5


The hadronic mechanics of R. M. Santilli2 et alia apparently geometrizes the effects, in spacetime, of electromagnetic potentials in the sense that general relativity geometrizes the gravitational potential.6



1.    R. B. Driscoll, Hadronic Journal, under review.

2.    R. M. Santilli, this web site (on neutron's structure) and its references.

3.    G. Miller, et alia, Session B3 of the American Physical Society

        meeting (April 2003).

4.    Report on APS meeting, April 2003, in APS News

        (April 2003), p. 6, col. 2.

5.    R. B. Driscoll, Hadronic Journal Supplement, 5 (1990), 103.

6.    A. Einstein, Ann. d. Physik 35 (1911), 49 (1916).

       *Permanent Address:  P.O. Box 637, Oakland, CA 94604, USA. 


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